A Chronology
The Victorian Government's Century in Plantations

David Williams, 2018 (bio)


Understanding the Government’s Century in Plantations

The Government’s more than a century in plantations included many achievements, as well as a number of disappointments and shortcomings. Overall the government’s plantation story was significantly successful.

There were many successes including:

  • Early statement and consistent affirmation of a policy of establishing plantations. Initially the goals were to rehabilitate land cleared in the 1850’s gold rushes, provide timber and avoid cost and unreliability of imported timber, generate revenue and create jobs through local sawmills. Commercial financial returns became a more important objective following increased investment with the plantations expansion program.
  • A record of achieving planting targets which aimed to meet Victoria’s future timber needs.
  • There were significant advances in technology, equipment and practices resulting from effective research and development.
  • There were a number of successful, energetic personalities that overcome many challenges.

There were many challenges, the most significant of which was growing opposition in the 1970’s and increasing in the 1980’s. At different times environmental activists, affected local communities and farmers opposed different aspects of plantations for reasons including use of chemicals particularly aerial application, adverse environmental effects, clearing of native forests for plantations, use of purchased farmland for plantations and use of public money in an enterprise which was not providing a satisfactory financial return.

With the benefit of hindsight the questioning and opposition from people outside government needs to be evaluated in the context of changing times. Increasing questioning and opposition to all manner of policies and actions from the late 1960’s was considered a positive change by some and it was occurring at the time in other states as well as in North America and Europe. On the positive side there was commendation from some external parties on environmental standards, early move to cease clearing native forests and the Government’s use of an independent body to review and recommend areas for plantation expansion using a conservation lens. The attractive sale price for the plantations partly ameliorated the earlier poor financial performance.

The chronology listed below provides a snapshot of the events that shaped the government’s plantations century.

The listing in the manner presented necessarily simplifies the story. One might incorrectly conclude that a clear, coherent and consistent pathway was set at an early time to achieve the goal of establishing a well-managed, highly productive and extensive plantation estate for the benefit of Victorians. This is not so and the realty is complex and nuanced. Assembling the many inter-related chapters on the website over time will provide interesting insights into the plantation story.

Listing the significant events does not adequately convey the circumstances and the many influences on government plantation decisions. In many situations there had been a prior build-up period to garner support for a particular position before government actions. Government decisions mostly followed, rather led, public positions. Some of the circumstances and influences included:

  • The merits of a policy or position
  • Public support or opposition
  • Lobbying and cajoling members of parliament by influential “insiders”
  • Broader public and/or local affected community support or opposition
  • Government willingness, financial capacity and whether the government considered there was political advantage at the time
  • Larger scale impact on local communities as the program expanded to purchased private land combined with changing community expectations over time
The Plantation Story

The plantation story can be seen in four sequential periods, as follows:

  • 1888-1959 - low level activity. Only a small proportion of the total plantings occurred over the first seven decades. There was early recognition of the need for softwood plantations and repeated statements about plantations but there was limited planting activity.
  • 1960-69 - a busy decade. Total plantings increased steadily during the 1960’s decade. The Government adopted the plantation expansion (PX) program which committed ambitious area targets at the time, provided increasing funds, commenced planting in new areas across the state and secured attractive loans from the Commonwealth Government.
  • 1970-79 – heightened activity and controversy for the first time. This decade was the busiest with a substantial proportion of total plantings being established. Whilst a period of great activity, it also saw controversy for the first time. Affected local communities and environmentalists became increasingly vocal in opposition to the preferred practice of aerial application of weedicides and concern about potential adverse environmental effects.
  • 1980-92 – continued heightened activity & broadened opposition. High level plantation activity continued. The Timber Industry Strategy (TIS) confirmed increased area targets with the aim of supporting ongoing investment in a competitive processing sector. But opposition also increased and broadened particularly in the Strzelecki and Otways Ranges, and North East Victoria. Opposition was directed at a number of activities including use of chemicals, clearing native forests for plantation establishment, increased overall scale of plantations, potential adverse environmental effects and use of purchased farm land for plantations. Criticism and opposition from affected local communities and farmers represented a significant shift as these groups had traditionally been supporters of forestry and forest industries.
Achievements of the FCV, its Predecessors & Successors
  • created an estate of 113,209 ha composed of 105,964 ha of softwood and 7,245 ha of hardwood plantations – the area by region is shown in the figure below. 
  • the estate incorporated productive plantations based on best practice.
  • the resource supported new competitive mills in all major plantation regions with consequent social, job creation and economic benefits.
  • the estate was ultimately sold to private investors for an attractive price of $550 million under conditions ensuring the continuation of the plantations. The Government also received $68 million in dividends from its state owned enterprise, Victorian Plantations Corporation.
  • the plantation business provided sustainable log supplies for regionally based competitive processing sector well positioned for future prosperity in a timber hungry market.



1851 to 1940s/50s

State of Victoria proclaimed.
Destructive Clearing - the discovery of gold in Victoria led to the destructive clearing of forests causing adverse impacts including loss of productive forests, widespread erosion and proliferation of weed infestations.
Need for Plantations Recognised - Boards of Inquiries recognise the need for plantations of broadleaved and coniferous species to generate revenue, provide softwood timber to replace imports and support jobs in local mills.
First Nursery - Macedon nursery was established to raise plants for plantations - initial emphasis was on broadleaved species but Radiata & Nigra pines were also planted.
Early Environmental Plantations & Employment for Miners - Plantings at Macedon were extended and new plantation projects were commenced at Creswick (1888) and the You Yangs (1889) to rehabilitate land eroded by mining, and to provide work for miners who were unemployed following the decline in gold production. The plantings, of mainly commercial softwood species, were also to produce softwood timber to reduce the volume of imported timber.
More Nurseries - nurseries were established at Sawpit Gully (Creswick) nursery in 1888 and Havelock, Gunbower Island & You Yangs in 1888-90. 
Plantation Management Regimes - plantation management regimes were adopted initially for hardwood plantations but also applied for exotic softwoods. Regimes were based on 2.4 metre * 2.4 metre spacing and multiple thinnings aimed at yielding final crop trees from which high quality round and sawn timbers could be produced. The regime continues to underpin Radiata Pine silviculture in Victoria.
Expert Advice – the Government commissioned a Report on the State Forests of Victoria (1896) by Inspector General Ribbentrop, Indian Forest Service to review and make recommendations on Victorian forestry. His comprehensive report concluded, among many matters, that there was merit in establishing softwood plantations but cautioned against broadcast introduction of Pinus insgnis because whilst fast growing, he considered the wood to be of “low character”.
A Forests Act – the first Forests Act created a new Forests Department, under Conservator of Forests Mackay, and supported the establishment of plantations over the following decade.
Victorian School of Forestry established at Creswick to train foresters to manage Victoria's forests.
New Conifer Nursery at Creswick – the new nursery employing larger scale “production line” techniques was a significant advance, successfully producing large numbers of hardy seedlings at low cost thus avoiding the undesirable previous practice of broadcast seeding. Continued seedling losses from grazing animals required expensive fencing of newly planted areas. The large cost adversely affected the rate of plantation expansion.
Early Failed Plantations – by the early 1900’s there were extensive coastal areas which were not suitable for farming. Some of these areas were tried for plantations. New plantations were established at Frankston and Harcourt (1910), French Island (1911), Wilsons Promontory (1913), Bright (1916), Port Campbell (1919), Anglesea (1923) and Mount Difficult (1925). Virtually all of these areas totalling more than 10,000 ha failed. This highlighted the importance of pre-requisite site assessment surveys which became the norm in subsequent new projects.
Need to Increase Plantings - Conservator of Forests Mackay affirmed the need to lift the annual planting rate, particularly for conifers.
Forests Commission Victoria established. One of a number of principles governing its formation was the establishment of adequate plantations of exotic softwood species.
State Cooperation and Commonwealth Funding – the Interstate Conference on Forestry attended by all State forests departments advocated co-operation between the States to establish a national plantation estate funded by the Commonwealth Government. This became a reality more than 40 years later under the Softwood Forestry Agreements Act.
FCV Target – the FCV stated its policy to increase softwood plantations and set a target for the estate of 80,000 ha.
School Plantation Scheme – the scheme was formalised with the FCV providing plants free of charge and foresters to provide advice and assistance with the establishment and management of school plantations.
FCV Plantation Policy – the FCV stated its policy to increase softwood plantations.
Late 1920s
Private Plantations – the first significant areas of private softwood plantations were established by bond selling companies in south west Victoria in the late 1920’s. Private plantation establishment over the following three decades was largely confined to three companies – APM Forests Pty Ltd, South Australian Perpetual Forests Ltd (SAPFOR) and Softwood Holdings Ltd.
Douglas Fir – the first plantings of Douglas fir occurred in the Otway Ranges.
Jobs Planting Trees – The Rural Relief Fund was established to provide employment during the Depression. Employment relief included establishing softwood plantations. Planting increased in 1931 to 92ha which was a three fold increase on the previous year. The higher rate continued through the decade. Main existing plantations at Macedon, Creswick, Scarsdale, Myrtleford and Bright were expanded, and new plantations were commenced at Beech Forest, Narbethong and Noojee (Loch Valley). Rural Relief Funds were terminated in 1938. By that time the total area of softwood plantations had grown to 18,000 ha.
New Paper Mill – Australian Paper Manufactures (APM) constructed a pulp and paper mill at Maryvale to be supplied with pulpwood from surrounding public native forests.
APM Supply Forests Burnt - APM's public native forest supply area was burnt in the 1939 fires, just two years after the mill was constructed thus creating pulpwood supply uncertainty.

Fire Losses – about 4,400ha of FCV softwood plantation was destroyed by the fires, principally at Narbethong, Noojee and Bright.

1940s & 1950s
Slow Down - slowdown in plantation expansion occurred due to the War initially, then labour shortages, lack of money and the increasing costs post-war. Plantations at Rennick were modestly expanded and a new project was commenced to plant cleared land which had been acquired by the State Rivers and Water Supply Commission at Delatite Arm, Lake Eildon.

Need for Plantations Timber
– the post-war reconstruction boom resulted in tight supplies of timber for housing, and demonstrated the need for timber from plantations in the future to supplement the supply of hardwood timber from native forests.